The Seasoning And Cutting Methods Of A Tree

The seasoning and cutting methods of a tree play an important part when a tree is felled or cut down to produce timber for building materials and furniture making.

The Cutting Method Of A Tree

The first stage of preparing the timber for commercial use would be the felling of the tree, or trees that have been selected to go to a saw-mill.

A forestry worker would select the trees to be felled and would usually be the oldest trees giving the younger trees space to grow and mature. New trees known as saplings would also be planted to replace the trees cut down so that the forest doesn’t run out.

The responsibility of maintaining the quality of the forest would also be considered when cutting down trees for future growing of trees.

If only a small amount of tree were to be cut down then a chainsaw would be ideal for the job, but in other cases where lots of trees are to be cut down then heavy duty machinery would be used, such as specially designed tractors with grabbers and cutters would be used to harvest hundreds of trees in a day.

Trees would normally be felled during the winter months because they have less water content during this time as they can have over fifty percent water content during the summer months but still do have a lot during the winter. The reason for this is because the more weight can cost more for handling and transport.

After the trees have been cut down or felled, they will be de-branched meaning that the branches will be removed from the main trunk by machinery or a chainsaw and cut to length. Then they will either be loaded on to a suitable vehicle equipped with lifting gear and transported to a saw-mill, or sometimes the trees will be stacked and stored in the forest until the saw-mill is ready for them.Logs stacked

This means that the water content in the tree has time to evaporate from the tree and the weight will be reduced for transportation to the saw-mill. In the tropics large amounts of trees are transported by floating them in rivers and allowing the current to take them downstream towards the saw-mill.

When the trees reach the saw-mill they will sometimes be passed through a de-barker machine meaning that the bark will be torn off the tree before being cut into boards by a circular saw or bandsaw. This is known as conversion and has two stages. The first stage is called breaking down which means the log will be roughly cut down into boards.

The boards will be cut using different varieties of cutting arrangements. Different cuts will produce boards that are normally plainsawn or quartersawn.

Plainsawn is the most common and is cut by a number of cuts being made to one side of the log and then turned 90 degrees onto the flat surface with further cuts to another side of the log. This process is repeated around the log. Plainsawn produces boards with a flat grain on the face and quarter grain on the edges. The growth rings will meet the surface at an angle less than 45 degrees (Europe) 30 degrees (US).

Quartersawn is cut by the log being cut into quarters and then each part will be cut individually by cutting from the flat sides alternately. Quartersawn produces boards with quarter grain on the surface and flat grain on the edges. The growth rings will meet the surface at an angle greater than 45 degrees (Europe) 60 degrees (US). In the US, if the angle of growth rings is between 30 and 60 degrees the boards are known as riftsawn.
On some occasions a woodworker could ask for a log to be livesawn or also known as cutting through and through. This is where the log will be cut at one angle all the way through the log. This will produce boards with a mixed grain, flat grain in the centre of the board and quarter grain towards the edges of the surface on the board.

The second stage is called resawing. This is more accurate and precise cutting and finishing such as plaining and machining. Boards are sold as either rough-sawn or planed. Plained boards will be PAR (plained all round) or PBS (plained both sides with the edges rough-sawn). The best hardwoods are graded as FAS (Firsts and seconds)

The Seasoning Method Of A Tree

When a tree is felled or cut down, it contains a large amount of water or moisture content of up to around 40 – 50 percent. The seasoning allows the tree to dry out by being air dried or kiln dried (dried in a temperature controlled atmosphere).

The boards will be stacked with spacers (called stickers) between them to allow the air or heat to circulate them. Air dried boards will reduce the moisture content to about 16 percent and make the boards suitable for outdoor use. Kiln drying reduces the moisture content further to around 8 – 12 percent which is suitable for indoor use.

Be aware that the timber may shrink or expand if it’s in an atmosphere that is too dry or too wet as the moisture content will adjust to its surrounding.

Wood that has had the moisture content reduced is called “seasoned wood” and wood that has not had the moisture content removed is called “green wood”.

How to Refinishing Your Hardwood Floors

How to Refinishing Your Hardwood Floors

Hardwood floors are such an attractive feature to have in homes, that people spend fortunes on homes when purchasing them to get these elegant looking floors. People will also often spend a fortune having these floors put in. This is a popular option because it is the best option for people with allergies and often the most aesthetically pleasing option. However, this is a delicate flooring option that needs proper care in order to stay in great shape. By not taking the proper precautions with this flooring, you will damage it and this can be a very costly fix. So, how to refinishing your hardwood floors?

How to Refinishing Your Hardwood Floors

Properly Cleaning Your Flooring

One of the biggest reasons for needing to refinish your flooring is because you do not clean it properly. You need to be very careful with the products that you use to protect the surface of your hardwood floor. When choosing a broom and dustpan, you will want options that have softer bristles and dustpans that have rubberized edging. This will prevent your floor from getting scratched up when sweeping. If you find sweeping the floor to be too physically demanding for you, you can also choose to vacuum your hardwood floor.

When you choose a vacuum for your hardwood floor, you will need to look for options that are specifically meant for this purpose. Traditional carpet vacuums have thicker bristles that can very easily scratch up the surface of your floor. These vacuums also have plastic wheels that will also damage the surface of your hardwood floor.

If you pick an option that does not explicitly say “for hardwood floors”, make sure that you pick an item that can be used on bare floors, as they often have a button that switches between the two surfaces and may not be as likely to scratch up your floor. Even still, you will run the risk of damaging your floor whenever you purchase an option that is not made for the hardwood floor, so you would be best to choose a hardwood floor vacuum.

An option like the BISSELL PowerEdge Pet Hard Floor Corded Vacuum, 81L2A is perfect because it was made for hardwood flooring. It has powerful suction, as it was also made to pick up stubborn pet hair, but is made with rubber wipers rather than bristles to help glide smoothly along the hardwood floor with ease. This vacuum is very easy to move around the floor, and has a swivel head that can maneuver easily around furniture. It has a unique shape to it that helps collect the dust and debris into the center, similar to the way a broom and dustpan work. The ends also have suction to allow the dirt and dust to be collected if they cannot make it into the center area.

After you get all of that dust and dirt off of the ground, you will next clean using a mop and cleaner. First of all, you want to choose a cleaner that is made for use on hardwood floors or ones that are safe for hardwood floors. You will want to stay away from any wax-based or oil-based cleaner, as well as cleaners that are made with ammonia. It can be tempting to use a homemade floor detergent, but you need to be careful of what you use for that. Any homemade item that is made with vinegar will be too rough on your hardwood floor. Wax and oil-based cleaners can make your floor slippery and greasy while ones made with chemicals like ammonia or with vinegar can damage your floor’s finish. You will also need to pay attention to the type of mop that you use. A sponge mop, or a mop with microfiber pads, is generally the best option. String mops just end up rewashing your floor with dirty water, which defeats the purpose of this task while also leaving too much water behind on the surface of the floor. This excess water can damage your finish and also warp the wood floor boards.

Floor Damage

Understanding how to properly clean your floor is one useful step to help preserving its natural beauty without having to repair it. A common mistake is not using the proper tools for cleaning your floor. Traditional vacuums that were made for carpets can very easily scratch up and scuff your floors. This can also easily happen as a result of using the wrong cleaners. You should clean your floor on a regular basis as the dirt can also damage your floor if left to accumulate.

There are many other things that can cause damage to your floor. Shoes are a huge culprit for damaging floors. Spiky, high heels and even older shoes can scratch up the surface of the wood flooring. It is best to leave all of your shoes at the door before walking on the hardwood floor. Another common way that floors become damaged is by not properly caring for your pet’s nails. If they become too long or are too jagged, they will tear up your floor. It is important to make sure that your pets are properly groomed to prevent this.

Floor damage is preventable. By preventing this damage, you can save yourself the hassles and costs of refinishing your floor. But if your floor is damaged, you will want to consider your options for refinishing your floor. Otherwise, your hardwood floor will no longer look like the beautiful flooring that you previously had.

Is Refinishing a DYI Task or Should It Be Left to the Pros?

The answer is that this depends. If you are very handy around the house, you may be able to take on this task yourself. You will only need to rent out the supplies and teach yourself how to do this task. However, for those people who have yet to master the DYI thing, it could be much better to leave this task to a professional. If you are not particularly skilled here, hardwood floors are not forgiving when it comes to mistakes. You will be able to very clearly see your errors when you are finished with the job. This can negatively affect the appearance of your home.

Professional Refinishers

It will often take a professional less than a week to complete a simple task of refinishing, though some more complex cases can take up to 2 weeks. This can be affected by humid weather, which will change the drying times for the finishes.

Here are the steps a professional will go through in order to refinish your floor:


This tells the professional what actually needs to be done to the floor. Often times the scratches are superficial, and have only damaged the clear top coat of the hardwood flooring. If this is the case for you, they will only need to reapply this top coat. This is a relatively inexpensive and easy fix. If after this process, referred to as “screening”, finds that the scratches are more than just superficial ones, they will move onto the next step.

Sand and Finish

This will involve sanding down entirely to the bare wood. Before even sanding the floor, the professional will need to be sure that the floor is thick enough to complete this process. If there is enough solid wood to complete this job, they will begin the sanding process. After this is completed, they will next fill in any cracks or holes. Once this has been completed, the professional will move onto finishing your floor. While you have the option of leaving the floor in this natural state, people often choose to follow up with the stain instead. This process usually requires several coats, including sanding in between coats. There are different choices of coats. You will have the option of water-based coats, which lack the strong odor and are eco-friendly but are not the most durable option. The polyurethane finishes are the options that are typically used. These are the best options if you are looking to stain a high traffic area or if you are staining floors in kitchens. This is a very durable option. The final option is the acid-cured finish. This option dries fast, allowing for more than one coat to be applied in a single day. This option is probably the most durable stain; however it does come with a big downside. Some brands of this stain produce very dangerous fumes that will require you to not be home, turn off your pilot light and not turn on any light switch.

The DYI’er

The DYI’er will need to rent out a buffer to complete this task. This can be very difficult because if an oil or waxed-based soap was used to clean the floor, the buffer will not do its job properly. If the finish does not take, that means you need to thoroughly clean the wood floor before you can even begin this process. It would be wise to try out a location that no one will notice. If the stain stays, you can continue along with the rest of the flooring. If not, you will need to find a special commercial hardwood cleaner that will help remove this residue in order successfully stain the flooring.

After this, you will use a drum sander in order to sand the entire floor. This is similar to a lawnmower, as you walk behind it and guide it evenly along the flooring. You will need to sand with progressively more fine grits each time you go over the flooring. This is a complicated piece of equipment to use, as it will destroy your floor if you let it linger too long in one location. You need to keep it moving. After this, you will move onto an orbital sander, a smaller item that will remove the finish and get into locations that the much larger drum sander could not get to.

Your best choice for stain is to choose a polyurethane stain in the color of your liking. This is the easiest one to apply, and the stronger of the two viable options. The other option for the DYI’er is the water-based, which is not really a great choice for most homes.

Before you even get started on this process, you will need to block off all doors to areas where you will not be working in order to lessen the cleanup. The dust will get everywhere that is not covered. You will absolutely need a strong dust mask to protect yourself from the dust and the fumes. After buffing the floor, you should patch up any locations that need it by using wood filler. After the sanding portion of this, you will want to be sure that you vacuum up the dust to make sure that you get a nice smooth coating of stain on your floor. It would be terrible to go through this process only to make it look bad by staining over the excess dust.

Just remember that this is a difficult task and can be very unforgiving if you make any mistakes at all. Then you will end up paying more money to fix your mistakes or end up paying a professional after all to fix your errors. You can even severely damage your floor, especially if you do not use the drum sander properly. It is best to get it done right the first time.

how to refinishing your hardwood floorsIt is a costly task to refinish a floor, and it can take a lot of time. If you do need to refinish your floor, you should consider using a professional to save yourself money in the long run. Mistakes can easily be made doing this yourself, and wood floors will show off every mistake that you have made. Even more than that, floor damage is very easily prevented so that you can avoid the need for refinishing your floor entirely. Be sure to put area carpets, runners, or mats in any high traffic location to help protect your flooring. It is also very important to remember to only use cleaning items that were made for hardwood floors, like vacuums. By remembering this step of how to refinishing your hardwood floors, you can save yourself the trouble of refinishing your floor.

How to get ripped abs

How to get ripped abs in 30 days

If you’re trying to figure out how to get ripped abs in 30 days or less than thirty days, you really have a very strong sense of fantasy and imagination. I am just kidding, however you have to fathom true facts about getting ripped abs in that short time interval. I can explain easily how to get six pack abs in 3 weeks,but it depends also on your present physical status. For a male with a fat percentage of twelve to fourteen percent or a female with body fat percentage of eighteen to twenty one percent, getting ripped abs in thirty days is no big deal, but if you’ve a body fat greater than said level, you need to work longer to get six pack abs in that targeted time.No matter how swift you need to get theseripped abs, you will find a step by step system which is mentioned below that anybody can easily follow as long as they wish to get ripped abs in the fastest time possible.

How to get ripped abs

How to get ripped abs

Step 1
Commit and then Focus.
This might sound lame to you, but committing oneself to get ripped abs in just thirtydays by writing it down somewhere in huge letters will keep you focused in assisting you avoid drifting away from unnecessary desires to cheat in your diet or skip a workout.
Step 2
Clean your diet, remove any junk food.
If you badly want to get ripped abs in the fastest time possible and want to know how to get six pack abs in 3 minutes workout, this step is the most imperative for your success. If the diet is clean, your fat will easily slide off, leaving a ripped and lean body that’ll turn heads. In order to clean the diet, you have to change your complete view of what the diet is and discuss it with a diet expert to make a diet plan which will work for you. Eat five to six short meals per day,each at a gap of 2.5 – 3.5 hours. Do not keep body in thestarving mode for more than 3.5 hours, or your body will go into starving mode and slow down the metabolism which also means that your body will begin storing fat instead of using it.Eat one portion of lean protein in every meal. Eat couple of portion of high fiber carbs along with glycemic index of less than fifty in each meal. Eat some nuts like walnuts and almonds because healthy fats are imperative to speed up the process of fat burning.These changes can mak an eighty percent contribution to assisting you get ripped abs very fast. Ever heard of saying, “Abs can be made in the kitchen by eating healthy food”? It is time for you to begin believing it because it is very true.

Step 3
Exercises for Muscle Building
Don’t worryabout bulking up as that’ll just happen if you raise your calorie intake way beyond the maintenance level?If you are looking for ways about how to get ripped abs in 30 days, then you have to focus on building muscle as much as you can within this short interval of time. This also goes for those who’ve high body fat percentage also.By focusing on building muscle as much as you can in minimum time, your body will surely have to keep working hard to preserve that muscle mass, which ultimately leads body to burn calories for energy to rebuild damaged muscle tissue from workouts while atthe same time trying to maintain muscle mass that you haveat present.

These’re very basic fundamentals that tell you how to get a six pack with in thirty days, but if you really need to get dedicated workout routines for 6 packs in 6 weeks with readymade diet plans and nutrition, then you should try suspension revolution which I started a few weeks back and felt a great change. So, if you’re really serious regarding losing fat or gaining muscle, you need to use suspension revolution in order to get guaranteed results. Suspension revolution is an ideal choice to use along with top rated programs for getting ripped abs and developing massive muscles!

Keratosis Pilaris in children

Keratosis Pilaris in children

Just like adults, children also suffer from keratosis pilaris. This is a skin condition where there is the appearance of tiny bumps on the upper arms and thighs that normally contain keratin proteins. However, this appears on the cheeks among children. Moreover, a continuous treatment is always advised in order to avoid it from coming back.

Keratosis Pilaris in children

The first keratosis pilaris treatment for children is the act of moisturizing. This usually works for mild cases of keratosis pilaris. The role of moisturizers is to lubricate and soften the hard bumps that are seen on the affected skin.

The next keratosis pilaris treatment for children is exfoliation. This is done in order to remove the dead skin cells that are found at the outer layer of the skin called epidermis. Some common products used for exfoliation are yogurt, milk, and lactic acid.

Due to the inflamed skin of a person with keratosis pilaris, it is required to use anti-inflammatory products. This keratosis pilaris treatment is safe to use on children. One good example is green tea oil which is a natural remedy. Aside from reducing inflammation, it also protects the skin from free radicals that cause cellular damage.

Another keratosis pilaris treatment is applying urea products, topical retinoids and lactic acid creams. In addition, mild peeling agents and smoothing scrubs are also used in de clogging hair follicles.

The condition of children with keratosis pilaris can get worst during the winter season due to high humidity level. During this time, intensive moisturizing is the most recommended keratosis pilaris treatment for both adults and children. Despite of not having any cure for this condition, it can still be treated and the symptoms decrease after turning 30 years old.

Sennheiser HD 598 Review

Sennheiser HD 598 Review

Ever wonder how much quality you can really get without breaking the bank? Check out this Sennheiser HD 598 Review to find the best headphones under 200!

Sennheiser HD 598 Review
Sennheiser HD 598 Review

When you’re looking for a higher quality headphone without going over budget, you’ll want to begin with the Sennheiser HD 598. The styling on these sweethearts was inspired by European sport sedans for a luxury look. Think real wood and fake leather. Velour softly cups your ears as you indulge in the greatest works of Chopin while slowly sipping the latest incarnation of mocha. Soy, of course!

What’s up to par?

  • Looks; beige colored with smooth burl wood accents and matching ear pads
  • Velour ear pads for maximized comfort
  • Plush leatherette headband
  • Distortion reduction
  • Sennheiser’s Eargonomic Acoustic Refinement (E.A.R.) technology

What falls short?

  • Jack not standard 3.5 mm; needs (included) adapter for use
  • Not optimized for mobile use; this severely limits usage for me
  • Metal mesh; that’s bad if you live in a wet climate like I do
  • Not as easily portable as folding sets

These headphones could go either way for me. Luxury is definitely the feel here. Pampering yourself privately is always a temptation. They may be more useful staying at home than traveling, though. If you’re looking for an uptown, trendy set of phones that appears more costly than they are, look no further. On the other hand, if your life is half as mobile as mine these may not be the product for you. They don’t fold away so their size will always be a factor. They are not conducive to waiting at your bus stop in the rain. That’s if you have brought a compatible device along. What do you think of the Sennheiser HD 598? Is it one of the best headphones under 200?

DEWALT DWE7490X Table Saw review

DEWALT DWE7490X Table Saw review

If you are looking at buying a table saw, here is a concise review of what we found to be the advantages and disadvantages of the DEWALT DWE7490X Table saw version. Much like most DeWALT products, provided that you buy this table saw new, you will be eligible for a three year limited warranty plus one year complete guarantee.

DEWALT DWE7490X Table Saw review

The DEWALT DWE7490X Table Saw

You can even try it out for a full 30 days, get the most out of the money-back guarantee should you decide for some reason this version is not what you desired, although after you read our review, we are confident you will find that it goes above and beyond your demands and expectations.
The 10 inch, twenty-four tooth blade potently functions off of a full 15 amps of power, supplying you with more than 4,800 RPMs, more than enough force to slice through pressure treated woods and other natural hardwoods for your endeavors. In addition, that is no lite-weight version, the saw itself is 58 pounds, not too much when you need to transfer it, but enough to give you stability for the precision cuts.

The DEWALT DWE7490X Table Saw

The DEWALT DWE7490X Table Saw comes using a steel scissor stand. This gives you added flexibility and mobility when in use, plus it easily allows for storage when you’re not working on a job. It really is also worthy of mention that you could mount this unit onto other stands, if for whatever reason you preferred a rolling stand, for instance.
Clean up with this version is also a no-brainer. While this isn’t a big deal if you are working outside and on large jobs, it surely is a helpful feature if you are doing a little remodel job and need to worry about clean up. There’s one located below the blade and another dust collector over the blade.

DeWLAT saw

The cutting and ripping capacity of the DEWALT DWE7490X saw is 2nd only to one other DeWLAT saw. You can quickly rip 28 1/2 inches wide, and the larger DeWALT saw just adds another few inches onto that, thus, over all, this version offers you all of the stamina and ripping electricity, for a substantially better cost than it’s bigger DeWALT brother.
This unit also offers a storage space for almost any accessories. This makes keeping an eye on your blade guards, wrenches along with other little bits that easily get misplaced while you’re working, simple and suitable.

Strong table saw

A review wouldn’t be complete without mentioning the flip over fence feature of this version. This enables one to make precision cuts without the blade guard impeding. Plus, you can even lock and use the flip fence as a support underneath a bigger bit that you’re cutting.
In conclusion, whether you are a professional or a home owner with a listing of house jobs, if you’re looking for a flexible, strong table saw for installing hard wood flooring, ripping filler planks for cabinets, installing a deck or another wood project that your house needs, this version will easily be able to handle anything which you can throw at it. The cost is considerably more reasonable for what it offers than more expensive table saws, and you’ll be able to feel confident with your purchase that you are sure to get several years of endeavors out of it.

Brother XR9500PRW Review

Brother XR9500PRW Review

There was a time when sewing machines were used to mend clothes or tailor simple clothes. Not anymore. Sewing machines today are capable of helping you churn out designer clothes and see your imagination and creativity materialized on fabric.

Brother XR9500PRW Limited Edition Project Runway Sewing Machine with 100 Built-in Stitches and Quilting Table is the most modern and technologically advanced sewing machine. This sewing machine is completely computerized and automatic. This is a limited edition model, so it is packed with features that are surely going to amaze you and deliver wonderful results.

Brother XR9500PRW Review


  • 100 built-in stitches
  • Stitch width = 7 mm, stitch length = 5mm
  • Latest needle threading mechanism
  • Drop-in top bobbin system
  • Equipped with a button to control speed
  • 140 stitch function
  • Drop feed mechanism
  • Bobbin winding mechanism
  • LED stitch selection
  • Single step buttonholes
  • Fitted with LED screen
  • Equipped with foot pedal
  • Built-in sewing font for creative monogramming
  • Built-in quilting system
  • Comes with 7 presser foot
  • Drop feed mechanism
  • 3 x 12.7 x 17.6 inches dimension
  • 9 pound weight
  • Needle position button

What’s So Great About The Brother XR9500PRW?

  • Good looking, compact design
  • Reasonably priced
  • Can make up to as many as 850 stitches per minute
  • Easy to use and very user friendly
  • Provides optimum power control to the user
  • Equipped with free arm design, suitable for sewing cuffs and sleeves
  • Easy to start and stop, by pressing a single button
  • Bright LED light assists in sewing
  • Twin needle enabled
  • Comes with a hard cover
  • Comes with a quilting table
  • Capable of doing special quilting stitches
  • Spacious
  • Capable of doing heavy stitching
  • Capable of doing zig-zag and decorative stitches
  • Comes with oversized big table for stitching large fabric pieces
  • Easy setup
  • Top bobbin is jam-resistant

What’s Not So Great About The Brother XR9500PRW?

  • Since it is heavy, it might not be suitable to carry around
  • Presser foot presser adjustment is a feature that it is not yet fitted with
  • Free motion quilting foot mechanism is absent
  • Not suitable for countries which do not support 120 V AC. Even voltage adapter will not help.
  • Automatic thread tension system is missing

Is This A Great Purchase?

The Brother XR9500PRW Limited Edition Project Runway Sewing Machine is a great choice for those who are passionate about making creative designs on clothes or tailor clothes professionally. It is as good for simple creative designs as for heavy duty stitching, including quilting, so it is suitable for all kinds of uses. This sewing machine is incredibly user friendly and easy to use. Also, professional stitching requires a lot of effort, and this sewing machine would considerably reduce the effort as most mechanisms are automatic. It is very affordable, so does not burn the pockets. It is very difficult to find so many features packed into a sewing machine that is so reasonably priced. Plus, it is very sturdy and durable, so it will last a long time and bring good returns.